"DSI-2" - EMF meter, device for measuring the potential of activated water and aqueous solutions, located in a nonequilibrium thermodynamic state (NTS) with excited Resonant Microcluster structures (RM) and Supercoherent Radiation (SI) (sb22.pdf, sb22.htm, ikar.pdf, sb43-1.pdf, sb43-1.htm, svg_avt.pdf, sb44-2.pdf, sb44-2.htm).
Pic.1. "DSI-2", compact device for measuring EMF - potential of water (degree of its activation) dsi-2.pdf; measurements "DSI-2": tap water; fresh orange juice activated contactlessly on the installation "IKAR" (mod.04).
Pic.2. "DSI", mini set: 1,2 - auxiliary electrodes, 3 - EMF sensor, 4 - multimeter.
Pic.3. An example of registration with two ORP meters from one batch:
ORP buffer solution ORP_001 = +281 mV, ORP_002 = +289 mV
activated water after installation "IKAR" (mod.01os) ORP_001 = +207 mV, ORP_002 = -151 mV.
- Method for recording the properties of a nonequilibrium fluid (Shironosov V.G. - Method for determining structured activity of liquids. RF invention application №2007127132 от 16.07.2007 pat_2007127132.pdf. International application for an invention RST A18058 from 14.07.2008).
- Method for detecting cluster structure and microclusters of a liquid (Shironosov V.G., Kuznetsov E.V. Application for RF invention №2007127133 from 16.07.2007 pat_2007127133.pdf. International RST Invention Application A18056 from 14.07.2008).
- Theory of the origin of electrode and ORP potentials.
Features of ORP measurement for nonequilibrium systems in the region of negative values.
see FAQ answer from 11.05.2009
...Easy-to-use portable commercial devices (pencils) are made on the basis of electrodes, the secrets of the production of which are not disclosed. Calibration of such devices for standard solutions of red and yellow blood salt in the area of positive ORP does not give any guarantee for the correctness of the readings with negative ORP. The use of platinum electrodes and standard reference electrodes (e.g. silver chloride) guarantees the correct result at first glance.
However, the purity of the platinum electrode is of great importance here. The measured quantity is the potential difference between the two electrodes. Input impedance measuring chain is large, but not infinite, it usually amounts to 10^10 - 10^12 Om.
Part 1. Measurement of ORP
... It was found that the magnitude of the area of the electrodes plays a large role in measurements with platinum electrodes, «smoothness "of the surface, treatment of the electrode before measurements, and the structure of the metal.
The larger the electrode area, the higher the processing purity, special methods of removing oxide layers are applied, the more sensitive the electrode is to changes in the oxygen content in water and has a more negative potential.
So, for example, we took a batch of 100 pcs of platinum laboratory electrodes of the EPL-02 type, manufactured at the Gomel spare part (Belarus), and carried out measurements in water is at the water level with a potential of minus 200 mV was 150 mV. When viewing the surface of platinum under a microscope, it can be seen that the surface is uneven, pitted, which arose when processing platinum in a gas burner.
Much better reproducibility is obtained if platinum is taken in the form of polished wire with a diameter of more than 1.5 mm and a length of 2-3 mm or in the form of a disk with a diameter 1 cm electrodes of the firm "YUMO" (Germany).
In addition to the quality of the platinum surface and its area, the processing of the electrode in some reducing solutions is important.
We analyzed the "quality" of platinum electrodes in portable ORP meters, usually made in China. Unfortunately due to the platinum savings (the cost of platinum is now almost 2000 rubles / g) all electrodes do not meet the above requirements for obtaining sufficiently reliable and reproducible results.
Summing up, it can be argued to a large extent that in the absence of redox systems of the type Fe^2+/Fe^3+ the potential of the platinum electrode (ORP) is largely determined by the amount of dissolved oxygen.