"DSI-2" - EFM-meter, device for measuring the potential of activated water and aqueous solutions located in nonequilibrium thermodynamic state (NTS) with excited Resonant Microcluster structures (RM) and Supercoherent Radiation (SR) (sb22.pdf, sb22.htm, ikar.pdf, sb43-1.pdf, sb43-1.htm, svg_avt.pdf, sb44-2.pdf, sb44-2.htm).

Pic.1. "DSI-2", compact compact device for measuring EMF - potential of water (degree of its activation) dsi-2.pdf; measurements "DSI-2": tap water; fresh orange juice, activated contactlessly on the "IKAR" (mod.04s).
Pic.2. "DSI", mini set: 1,2 - auxiliary electrodes, 3 - EMF sensor, 4 - multimeter. EMF registration: K - Initial tap water EFM=+197,5 mV; A - activated water after device "IKAR" (mod.01os) EFM=- 196,5 mV.
Useful links
  1. 1. A method for recording the properties of a nonequilibrium liquid (Shironosov V.G. - Method for determining the activity of a structured liquid. Application for an invention of the RF No. 2007127132 dated 16.07.2007 pat_2007127132.pdf. International application for an invention under PCT A18058 dated 14.07.2008).
  2. Method for detecting cluster structure and microclusters of liquid (Shironosov V.G., Kuznetsov E.V. Application for invention of the RF No. 2007127133 dated 16.07.2007 pat_2007127133.pdf. International application for invention under PCT A18056 dated 14.07.2008)..
  3. Features of ORP measurement for nonequilibrium systems in the region of negative values. see. faq.htm answer dated 11.05.2009 -
    ....Easy-to-use portable commercial devices (pencils) are made on the basis of electrodes, the production secrets of which are not disclosed. Calibration of such devices with standard solutions solutions of red and yellow blood salt in the area of positive ORP does not provide any guarantee that the readings are correct in case of negative ORP. The use of platinum electrodes and standard reference electrodes (for example, silver chloride) guarantees the correct result at the first sight.
    However, the purity of the platinum electrode is of great importance here. The measured value is the potential difference between the two electrodes. The input resistance of the measuring circuit is large, but not infinite, it is usually 10^10 - 10^12 Om.
  4. see.
    Part 1. ORP measurement
    ... It was found that the magnitude of the area of the electrodes, the "smoothness" of the surface, the treatment of the electrode before measurements, as well as the structure of the metal play a great role in measurements with platinum electrodes.
    The larger the electrode area, the higher the processing purity, special methods of removing oxide layers are applied, the more sensitive the electrode to changes in the oxygen content in water and has a more negative potential value.
    So, for example, we took a batch of 100 pieces of platinum laboratory electrodes of the EPL-02 type, manufactured at the Gomel ZIPP (Belarus), and carried out measurements in water with different oxygen content. Platinum at these electrodes is a ball with a diameter of about 1 mm, fused into the glass. The spread of potentials for such electrodes at the level of water having a potential of -200 mV was 150 mV. When viewing the surface of platinum under a microscope, it can be seen that the surface is uneven, pitted with pits that arose when platinum was processed in a gas burner.
    Much better reproducibility is obtained if platinum is taken in the form of a polished wire with a diameter of more than 1.5 mm and a length of 2-3 mm or in the form of a disk with a diameter of 1 cm, electrodes from «YuMO» (Germany).
    In addition to the quality of the platinum surface and its area, the processing of the electrode in some reducing solutions is important.
    We analyzed the "quality" of platinum electrodes in portable ORP meters, usually made in China. Unfortunately, due to the economy of platinum (the cost of platinum is now almost 2000 rub/g), all electrodes do not meet the above requirements for obtaining sufficiently reliable and reproducible results.
    Summing up, it can be argued to a large extent that in the absence of redox systems in water such as Fe^2 + / Fe^3 + the potential of the platinum electrode (ORP) is largely determined by the amount of dissolved oxygen.

Pic.3. An example of recording with two ORP meters from one batch ORP: bufer solution ORP_001=+281 mV, ORP_002=+289 mV: activated water after device "IKAR" (mod.01os) ORP_001=+207 mV, ORP_002=-251 mV .