Dedicated to the blessed memory of my teachers:
A.I. Filatov, S.P. Kurdyumov, V.A. Zhuravlyov .
Forceps and scalpel for nanotechnologiesValentin Shironosov
Scientific Research Center "IKAR", firstname.lastname@example.org , http://ikar.udm.ru
Educational Scientific Centre "Resonance Technologys"
and Student Design Office "Resonance" of Udmurt Government University, email@example.com , http://v4.udsu.ru/science/untsrt.
International forum on nano- technologys, 3-5 december 2008, Moscow, http://www.rusnanoforum.ru sb44-2e.pdf
The main obstacle in the way of nanotechnologies is the lack of selective "scalpel and forceps", the instruments to operate with particles of size less than 10-9 meters, particularly with molecules and atoms.
Nanotechnologies were referred to for the first time in a well-known Richard Feynman's speech at the annual meeting of American Physical Society in California Institute of Technology (Caltech), 1959, "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom". Feynman suggested power moving single atoms and assembling macroobjects with the help of adequate-sized robots. It would allow making these objects many times cheaper. It was only needed to give such nanorobots the requisite amount of molecules and energy and write a suitable assembly program.
The studies to develop this adequate-sized robot - "scalpel and forceps" for nanotechnologies - have been in progress for a long time indeed and have their own respectable history. It is due to the fact, that the problem keeps arising while various applied problems in physics, biology, medicine and technology are being solved. These problems may concern the study of the way cells, organisms and particles move, attempts to hold them fixed and manipulate them with regard to their characteristics - size, ranging from micro- to macro-, charge, mechanical, electric, and magnetic moments in inhomogeneous fields.
The solutions of problems like these involve other serious mathematical and physical problems even in the first approximation.
The main mathematical problem is the absence of general vibration theory and small parameter for nonlinear systems. As a rule, the pendulum with vibrating suspension center was regarded as a "simple" model system with vibrational amplitude as a small parameter. Given approximation gave rise to numerous difficulties in the process of physical and mathematical (analogous, digital, hybrid) simulation of nonlinear dynamics in the sphere of resonance, such as "strange" singularities, attractors and chaos. Finally the authors of found solutions concluded that dynamical stability was impossible in zones of parametric resonance.
The main physical problem is that in a particle weighting region without any field sources (electrical, magnetic or gravitational) only saddle points exist. According to this, in statics and for the saddle points, the particle will be pulled in the weighting region in one direction and out in the other. The problem of stability was considered long ago by Gilbert (1600) and Earnshaw (1842). They discovered unstable equilibrium (static magnetic configuration). In accordance with Earnshaw theorem, stable particle confinement is just impossible in statics.
But what is impossible in statics, may be quite possible in dynamics (in variable fields or while particles move in inhomogeneous fields). In particular, Brownback showed that unstable equilibrium in statics may become stable in dynamics provided that there is a diamagnetic body in the system. Many theoretical and empirical researches have proved that dynamical stability of various physical systems is possible (levitron tasks, atomic traps, Kapitza's and Chelomey's pendulums etc.) outside the zones of parametric resonance. In 1989 N.F. Ramsey, W. Paul and H. Demelt won the Nobel Prize for non-resonant confinement of charged particles in electromagnetic atomic traps without feedback. Later on similar studies on confinement of living systems were carried out on the basis of intravital study of cell dynamics in inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields (1994). By the estimates of foreign experts, this discovery meant a breakthrough in the sphere of fundamental physics, biophysics and nanotechnologies.
For the first time the possibility to manipulate molecules with the help of resonant electromagnetic field was demonstrated theoretically and experimentally by P.N. Lebedev the century before last . In 1890 he brought forward a single program of "nanoworks" on resonant influence of fields on molecules and atoms.
In 1974 A.I. Filatov and V.G. Shironosov provided both theoretical and experimental evidence for resonant confinement of particles (ferromagnetics) in inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields without external feedback
Later on in 1990 Scientific Research Center "IKAR" was organized in Izhevsk and by the decree of USSR Committee for Science and Technology (№ 508, April, 9, 1991) means  were granted to finance the project on nanotechnologies - "New technologies on the basis of selective spatial confinement of bodies (from elementary to macro ones) without external feedback in inhomogeneous fields" as the priority direction of science and technology progress.
Main working data (in the sphere of resonant influence of the fields on non-linear physical and biological systems, 1974 - 2008, Fig. 1-3) :