"IIS-RT"-2002. Collection №26-3

Influence of activated water
on larvae and young fish of African catfish

Dubrovskaya O.N., Shironosov V.G.
Biology, medicine and phisics department
Udmurt State University, Izhevsk ikar@udm.ru
Collection of abstracts of VNKSF-8, Yekaterinburg, 2002, p. 586-588

We studied the influence of activated water and ionized air on development of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

One of the most important water parameters is its 'charge', that is to say, its ORP. It is well-known that people in mountain regions live longer, as they drink spring water. Such water has a microcluster structure and a negative charge due to triboelectricity and structural phase transitions. It is easily assimilated by a human body and has a negative ORP which is similar to ORP of the human body. It also has antioxidant properties.

One of the methods of water structuring is its treatment by means of a non-diaphragm electrochemical device. Electrolysis products influence on a biosystem is neutralized by weak current, so water effect on alive systems is based on structuring.

Ionized air and water has a positive influence on alive systems. According to Vojejkov V.L. [1], negative air ions are forms of active oxygen which are essential for human body. Chizhevskij A.L. pointed out this fact as well. Now we know that negative air ions are in fact hydrated radicals 02- [2]. Though the level of negative ions concentration in air is insignificant (several hundreds or thousands per sm3), experiments show that due to its deficiency animals die in several days with suffocation symptoms. At the same time air superoxide enrichment up to ~20000 particles per sm3 stabilize blood pressure and its rheology, contributes to tissue oxygenation and increases resistance to stressors [3]. 

Due to the above facts and to fish-farms want to get more fish in shorter time, as well as their need to save feed and to prevent young fish from infections, we decided to investigate influence of activated water and air on larvae and young fish of African catfish. The experiments with activated air were possible due to fish ability to breath ambient air.

Water activation was carried out by means of non-diaphragm flow-through electrochemical devices 'Izumrud-SI' and airionizers 'LCh-1'. Fish were kept in medium-size aquariums (V =30L).

The experiments were carried out in three stages:

  1. larvae incubation in activated water;
  2. young fish development in activated water;
  3. young fish development in activated water with ionized air.

The first stage was carried out in standing water, the 2nd and the 3rd stages were carried out in flowing water.

Water ORP in aquariums was 100 ±50 mV, which is by 150-200 mV lower than in regular water or in a reference sample. Fish was fed 3-4 times a day. The experiment took 3.5 months. During this period three physiological stages were studied- 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 months. The first 2.5 months of their life young fish was kept in activated water, then some fish was placed into aquariums with ionized air.

Larvae incubation was carried out in three aquariums: a) the control water; b) activated water; c) activated water to which neutral anolyte was added for disinfection (1:1000). On the next day since the beginning of the incubation bacterial dregs appeared which can be explained by bacterium multiplication. There were much less of the dregs in water with neutral anolyte.

The process of young fish development is presented in Table 1

Table 1

Survival of larvae and young fish




quantity of hatched larvae



quantity of young fish survived 7 days later



activated water+ anolyte






activated water












Table shows that 53% of larvae hatched in the 2nd group and in the control group, thus, structured water does not influence larvae development. In the 1st group (activated water+ anolyte) more larvae hatched (7%). This fact can be explained by anolyte's bactericidal property, which prevents pathogenic fungi multiplication.

Then, after larvae hatched, one of the main reasons of young fish death was parasitic infusoria. As the table shows, more young fish survived in the control aquarium, an the biggest amount of fish died in the 2nd group. It may be explained by the fact that parasitic infusoria propagate especially well in activated water. Anolyte prevented its multiplication, so more fish survived in the 3rd aquarium.

Three development stages were observed during the experiment (Table 2).

Table 2

Young fish weight


at the age of 1.5 months

at the age of 2.5 months


% of

increase in weight

at the age of 3.5 months

% of

increase in weight

activated water with ionized air


5.4 g


39.0 g

26,1 %

activated water

1.5 g

7.0 g

30 %

37,1 g

20,1 %


1,5 g

5.4 g


30,9 g


At the age of 1.5 months there was no significant difference between the groups. At the age of 2.5 months fish kept in activated water weighed ~7gramm, which is 30% more than fish weight in the control group.

At the same time another group of fish was formed which was kept in activated water with ionized air. An average fish of this group weighed 5.4 gr. A month later the last comparative analysis was carried out that showed that young fish grows faster in activated environments, especially in combined ones. The table shows that in a month average weigh of fish in the first group increased from 5.4 gr to 39 gr, in the 2nd group- from 7gr to 97.1 gr (5.3 times), and in the control group- from 5.4gr to 30.9gr (5.7 times). It should be pointed out that fish grown in activated water with activated air was more active and had better appetite.

We also carried out a short experiment to investigate anolyte and catholyte effect on fish. Every day small doses of anolyte and catholyte were added into water where fish was kept. The 1:100 dose of neutral anolyte (pH=7; active chlorine concentration=400ml/L) is lethal for larvae, the dose of 1:250 rapidly slows down all physiologic processes and fish stops growing. The 1:1000 dose of anolyte has no negative influence on young fish, and due the 1:1000 dose of catholyte fish weigh increases by 6%. However one should note that these results are true only for this particular fish.

Thus, structured water with negative ORP has a positive stimulating effect on fish and other living organisms (bacteria, infusoria), so it should be noted by fish farms. The effect can be intensified by combining such water with ionized air. Since 1:1000 dose of anolyte (standard norm for swimming pools disinfection) has no negative effect on fish, it can be used as a disinfectant solution for water and containers where fish is kept.


  1. Vojejkov V.L. Positive effect of active oxygen. Russian magazine about gastroenterology, hepatology and coloproctology. Volume 5, N4. 2001. Appendix 14: Materials of the 16th session of the Academic school, Ugolev seminar 'Urgent issues of physiology and digestive system pathologies', 14-17 May 2001, Pushchino-na-Oke, p. 128-135. sb24-1.htm
  2. Goldshtein N.I. Biophysical mechanisms of superoxide physiological activity. Doctoral thesis, Moscow, 2000.
  3. Kondrashova M.N., et al.[2000]// IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sci 28: №1, 230-237.