"IIS-RT"-2004. Collection № 45-2

Baking wheat bread using electro-activated aqueous solutions

Nabok MV, Plutahin GA PhD, Professor of Biotechnology, Biochemistry and Biophysics
Kuban State Agrarian University, Krasnodar,
Phone/Fax: +7 (861) 221-58-46 Phone / Fax: +7 (861) 221-58-46
http://kubsau.ru/
e-mail: pluga@nm.ru, pgacub@mail.ru

     Bread baking is one of the largest and most important branch of the food industry in Russia. Quality of the bread depends on the ingredients as well as water, technology for dough production and baking techniques.

At present there are numerous standards, rules and approaches to determine the quality of drinking water. Studies showed that the existing water quality estimation standards are imperfect and do not consider a number of the parameters, which characterize biological functions and biological potency of the water. One of the most important parameters of drinking water, from the point of view of contemporary medicine, is its "charge" - oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), which must be negative for drinking water.

Using a new and unique Russian technology a new generation of devices was developed to produce electro-activated drinking water and water solutions with high quality resonance microcluster structure (based on PEM-3 activators) and even higher quality (based on the Faraday cell).

Taking into account the influence of such aqueous solutions on the biological processes, we investigated their activating or inhibiting influences on reactivation of the baker's yeast and preparation of dough.

The water, activated by non-contact method, produced by the device "EMERALD- SI" (mod.04u), designed specifically for training purposes - for production and studies of both contact and non-contact activated liquids. Activation was carried out in the auxiliary tank of 1,5 liter electrolyte without forced circulation. Anolyte, catholyte, drinkable catholyte and drinkable anolyte were produced by the other device, the "EMERALD- SI" (mod.03u) designed for obtaining and investigating contact activated liquids. The obtained solutions were used for activating yeasts and dough kneading.

"EMERALD- SI" (mod.03u) - training stand for obtaining and investigating contact activated liquids

"EMERALD- SI" (mod.04u) - training stand for obtaining and investigating contact and non-contact activated liquids

 For activating dry yeasts, warm (30оС) 5% solutions of sugar, prepared in the activated aqueous solutions were used at a rate of 30 ml of the solution per three hundredth gram rolls in 200 ml glass containers. 30 min. prior to the beginning of the kneading, 6gm of dry yeasts were added into the sugar solutions with light agitation of vessels and their activation was conducted. The intensity of activation was evaluated according to the level of the solution, which rose in the container proportional to the isolation of carbon dioxide by yeasts.

The fermentation process occurred at a temperature of 30±2оС and relative humidity of 75 - 80%. Dough were weighed and divided into three equal pieces, they were formed and sent to the oven. Baking was carried out at a temperature of 230±5оС for 20 minutes.

The determination of the organoleptic indices of bread from the wheat flour were carried out in accordance with State Standard 27842-88, porosity in accordance with State Standard 5669-96, acidity in accordance with State Standard 5670-96 and humidity in accordance with State Standard 21094-75. The analysis of the amino-acid composition of bread was carried out by capillary electrophoresis on the instrument "Capel-105".

We have used five types of electro-activated water, four of which were obtained by contact method and one of non-contact activation method. All were evaluated on salinity, pH, RedOx potential. The results for each type of water are presented in the table. 1.

Table 1 - Physical and chemical characteristics of water used in the preparation of test

Type of water

pH

ORP, mV

Mineralization, PPM

Tap water (control)

7,94

220

470

Non-Contact Activated water

8,0

-110

460

Drinking catholyte

8.1

3,8

483

Drinking anolyte

8,14

67

461

Catholyte

10,1

-767

8000

Anolyte

6,15

905

7800

     Yeasts that were activated by solution with the use of catholyte, showed the greatest activity. The water, obtained by non-contact method, on its activity was a little inferior to catholyte. Drinkable catholyte was the third by the activity. Anolyte, in spite of the active chlorine content in it, could not completely inhibit the process of fermentation.

Results of tests on the breads' physicochemical parameters are presented in the following table 2.


Table 2 - the physical and chemical characteristics of the bread baked with different types of the electro-activated water.

Type of water

Bread, Vol.cm3

Specific Weight, Kg/cm3

Humidity of crumbs, %

Acidity of crumbs, Deg.

Porosity of crumbs, %

Tap water (control)

340

0.405

41.0

1.2

74.0

Non-Contact Activated water

410

0.371

42.0

1.5

76.5

Drinking catholyte

390

0.378

40.0

1.2

73.0

Drinking anolyte

410

0.379

39.5

1.4

73.6

Catholyte

300

0.459

39.5

1.5

74.3

Anolyte

460

0.332

41.5

1.4

82.0

GOST 27842-88

--

--

43.0

3.0

70.0

By organoleptical performance evaluation as follows: non-contact activation 9.2, 9.0 anolyte control 8.8, 8.7 anolyte drinking, drinking catholyte 7.0, catholyte 6.1 points.
Amino-acid composition of bread was also affected by the quality of water (table 3).

Table 3. Amino acid composition of the bread.

Amino Acid

Content of amino acid in bread (mg/100 g)

Control

Non-Contact Activated

Drinking Catholyte

Drinking Anolyte

Catholyte

Anolyte

Arginine

0.25

0.233

0.149

0.163

0.185

0.191

Lysine

0.15

0.173

0.112

0.124

0.181

0.194

Tyrosine

0.209

0.21

0.2

0.171

0.18

0.173

Histidine

0.144

0.153

0.125

0.128

0.171

0.116

Leucine+Isoleucine

0.4006

0.387

0.345

0.355

0.316

0.298

Methionine

0.103

0.101

0.084

0.068

0.125

0.096

Valine

0.2834

0.303

0.27

0.256

0.314

0.288

Proline

0.9982

0.885

0.873

0.899

0.963

0.833

Threoline

0.209

0.216

0.186

0.172

0.201

0.137

Serin

0.2812

0.297

0.228

0.27

0.342

0.326

Alanine

0.207

0.221

0.201

0.188

0.224

0.203

Glycine

0.2734

0.281

0.232

0.371

0.243

0.225

Phenylalanine

0.346

0.312

0.292

0.302

0.292

0.305

The biological value of the proteins of the bread is shown in table 4.

Table 4. Total value of amino acids.

 

Control

Non-Contact Activated

Drinking Catholyte

Drinking Anolyte

Catholyte

Anolyte

Speed

291.7

302.6

258.2

251.12

279

275.1

     As shown from above data, the proteins of the bread baked with the use of the electro-activated water by non-contact method, possessed the greatest biological values.

The non-contact activated water and catholyte had negative ORP properties. Apparently, fermentation of yeasts was very rapid, surpassing the rest of the samples. Both test samples exceeded the volume of the control sample and sample baked with drinkable anolyte had the largest volume. Of the six samples of bread, the bread baked with non-contact activated water was the most qualitative on the majority of indices. Bread baked with catholyte showed the worst results. These samples can be seen in Fig. 1.

drinking catholyte
контроль
drinking anolyte
anolyte
catholyte
non-contact activation
Fig 1. Bread baked with non-contact activated water and catholyte.

    It appears that the standard activation time for yeasts using catholyte resulted in the loss of yeast lift. To obtain high-quality bread, activation time should be reduced.
Anolyte's ORP was 905 mV with active chlorine presence, so the activation of the yeast was the worst. Despite this fermentation was sufficiently intense however and baked bread had the greatest values of volume and porosity, and exceeded the control sample by the remaining indices.
We have thus obtained results which indicate the possibility of utilizing electro-activated liquid media to improve the quality of bread.