"IIS-RT"-1999. Collection №15-13.

"Emerald - SI" - universal household purificatory apparatus for drinking water and synthesize activated liquids with preset structure and properties.

Minakov V., Shironosov V., Shironosov G., p.334. (Izhevsk, ikar@udm.ru, ikar@udm.ru )
The Electrochemical Activation - 99. The second international symposium. "The electrochemical activation in medicine, agriculture, industry". Moscow, 28-29 October 1999. The theses and the reports. In 2 parts. All-Russian research and Medical technology institute. 1999. 420 p.

      The reasons for and purposes of the development of new modification of a residential electrochemical water filter that produces drinking water with specified composition and qualities (pH and redox potential), and cleansing and antiseptic solutions. The unit has three different modes of operation.

      Now all the works that were started from July 1, 1997 to conform to a new Russian State Standard for drinking water are about to be completed. Unfortunately, however, this new version doesn't address the most important health issue. The water from the (tap water) faucet is not only deficient in the vital elements such as calcium and magnesium that are necessary for human health but also doesn't have the redox potential at a desired level.

      In St. Petersburg a new artificial mineral composition has been developed and brought into use by a group of scientists headed by professor Churina in a laboratory for the clinical experimental cardiology for the institute of physiology named after I. P. Pavlov. This invention makes it possible to restore the level of calcium and magnesium ions in drinking water. In St. Petersburg it is recommended to add 20 ml each of calcium and magnesium to every 10 liter of drinking water, so the level of these two ions in the resulting water can be maintained at the concentration of 80-100 mg per liter and 30-50 mg per liter, respectively.

      The low level of calcium and magnesium in an organism may cause a number of diseases such as hypertensive and ischemic heart diseases, juvenile vertebral osteochondrosis, disturbed posture, deviations in intellectual and memory development and others. Calcium and magnesium ions are vital to the normal functioning and growth of an organism. Those ions are especially necessary for children, breast-feeding and pregnant women, and elderly people. Such a situation is not just characteristic in St. Petersburg. The graphs below illustrate seasonal fluctuation in the calcium and magnesium concentrations in drinking water between 1996 and 1999 particularly in Izhevsk. The critical situation reaches its peak in the summer season. Such fluctuation is thought to be related to the seasonal changes in the amount of industrial waste to be dumped into the water bodies in the Kamsky region. These data have been kindly granted by Izhvodokanal at the request of the Udmurtsky State University.

 

Graphs of seasonal fluctuations of calcium and magnesium ions in drinking water in Izhevsk and in water of Kama-river for 1996-1998.

      As a rule there is a great difference between the parameters of general mineralization and ions composition in the water of different rivers. (See the graph.)


The parameters of general mineralization
and ions composition in the water of different rivers.

River

Parameter

      Ca2+     

      Mg2+     

Common
mineraliz.

Neva

8.0

1.2

48

Moskva

61.0

14.2

358

Pechora

4,6

2.1

40

Dnepr

55.7

11.8

287

Desna

64.0

7.7

330

Don

82.0

18.0

568

Kuban

37.1

3.0

195

Volga

80.4

22.3

458

Oka

58.8

11.8

139

Kama

82.1

21.7

440

Ural

106.4

27.4

580

Terek

90.2

19.3

495

Kura

47.2

20.0

382

Ob

24.3

5.2

129

Irtish

24.5

5.0

127

Lena

18.0

3.9

143

Makenzi

35.0

8.5

212

Enisei

19.2

4.5

105

Missisipi

34.2

9.0

210

Missuri

53.0

18.2

419

Kolorado

50.2

16.1

391

Temza

76.0

5.2

358

Rein

50.1

12.2

281

Elba

31.1

5.4

189

Dunai

58.2

13.1

331

Klarelf (Sweden)

3.1

0.1

29

Emba

166.0

47.1

1641

      At the same time it is known that the redox potential, the most important indicator of the inner environment of an organism, has the negative value that ranges from -100 to -200 mV. However, the redox potential of drinking water is practically always above zero and varies within the range from +100 to +400 mV. This is true for all types of drinking water: tap water, bottled water, and the water that has gone through the reverse osmosis filtration unit and other small and large water treatment system.

      Once ordinary drinking water has entered the human tissues, it takes away electrons from the cells in them, of which 80%-90% comprises water. As a result the biological structure of an organism becomes subject to oxidizing disruption. That's how an organism wears out and grows old and why the vital organs lose their functioning quality. Nevertheless, this negative process can be slowed if drinking water with the qualities similar to those of the organism's inner environment, particularly the activated water with a negative redox potential, is regularly supplied to the organism. If this parameter is more negative than the one of the inner environment of an organism, the activated water supplies it with the energy that is used by cells as an energy reserve of anti-oxidizing protection from the unfavorable environmental influence. For example, it has been found out that the mortality rate among the mouse exposed to the irradiation, when fed with the water with the redox potential of-450, decreased to 10%, while the rate in the control group, which had been given the ordinary tap water with a positive redox potential, reached as high as 96%.

There are two possible ways to deal with the given situation:

1. To bottle water with specified properties in plastic, or;

2. To manufacture residential activated water processor units.

      The first variant has a strong shortcoming. The negative redox potential of an activated low-mineralized water regresses toward the positive value in a few days. In other countries this variant is considered to be the best one in terms of economy and will cost a four-member family 900 rubles a month (10 liter per day, 3 rubles for 1 liter).

      The second option using EHA technology will pay up its own cost in two months (it will cost somewhere between 5 and 10 kopecks to produce one liter of ionized water with the specified composition and properties) and thus is considered to be a better option.

      The decrease and increase of redox potential depends on the type of the units used and the operation mode based on the phenomenon of electrochemical activation. "Emerald-M, K" units are able to lower redox potential while "Emerald-S, SF, K.F" can raise this parameter.

      A hybrid residential water processor "Emerald-SI" has been jointly worked out by "IKAR" and "LET". The unit can change this parameter in a similar way. "Emerald-SI" has been developed on the basis of PEM-3 and well-known "Emerald" and "STEL" schemas which are able to obtain drinking water and activated solutions (for cleansing, disinfection and sterilization). A special built-in pump that is not installed in the other types of "Emerald" units helps to obtain drinking water with a set composition using the cartridge filled with artificial mineral components.

      The further development of the unit design gave an opportunity to control pH level and redox potential of drinking water within the range of pH 5-10 and -700/+ 400 mV, respectively.

      At the present moment, we manufacture modular universal residential units "Emerald-SI". These units are equipped with a preliminary purification device (an ion exchanger) at the inlet and perform three different functions. They all are able to generate water with a set composition and property that can suit the specific needs in a certain region and/or from a different group of consumers as well as activated solutions for the sanitary and hygienic purpose.

     1. Prilutskii V.I., Bahir V.M. Electrochemically actuating water: anomalous characteristics, mechanism of biological action.- M.; VNIIIMT AO NPO "Ekran". 1997. - p. 228.

     2. Shironosova G.I., Zadorognii Yu.G. " EMERALD-SI" - an universal residental unit, p. 219-220, 1 International symposium "Electrochemical activation in medicine, agriculture, industry ", col. rep.-М; VNIIIMT AO NPO "Ekran". 1997. - p. 248.

     3. Shironosova G.I., Minakov V.V., Trifonova G.P., Sakaeva V.E. Results of testing an universal residental unit "Emerald-SI", p. 217-218, 1 International symposium " Electrochemical activation in medicine, agriculture, industry", col. rep.-М; VNIIIMT AO NPO "Ekran ". 1997. - p. 248.